Achieving Your Ideal Weight Naturally - Part 1

Achieving Your Ideal Weight Naturally - Part 1

The Set Up

Brenda did not intend to be a bother. Her mother thought she wanted children, but her career was also very important to her. Her time with Brenda was sweet but short. Then she sought peace and quiet alone. Though Brenda cried from time to time, a bottle always seemed sufficient to quell the tears. Now when Brenda feels troubled, food always seems sufficient to ease the pain. It’s almost as though mother was near.

Obesity is up in food-quieted infants. Babies are often fed to keep them quiet, when their real need may not be hunger. This can become a life long habit, often tied to emotional eating.1

Overweight girls are at increased risk of premature puberty. Since 1963 the number of 6 to 19 year olds carrying excess weight has risen by 275%.2 Eighty percent of obese 10 to 14 year olds, from obese families, end up as obese adults.3

Consequently, childhood diabetes,4 osteoarthritis5 and premature puberty6 are at an all time high.

Obesity runs in families. Even the family dog is fat.7 They say, the apple never falls far from the tree – you may be genetically “wired” for obesity. However it is your choices that determine you weight.8 It has been said, genetics loads the gun— lifestyle pulls the trigger.9

Statistics: Who Has Edge In Latest Polls?

Everyday in the United States 67% of adults are overweight or obese, and 19% of adults smoke. Everyday in the United States smoking is the #1 cause of preventable deaths while obesity is #2 and gaining.10 The most prominent contributors to mortality in the United States in 1990 were tobacco (an estimated 400,000 deaths), diet and activity patterns (300,000), alcohol (100,000), microbial agents (90,000), toxic agents (60,000), firearms (35,000), sexual behavior (30,000), motor vehicles (25,000), and illicit use of drugs (20,000).11

Obesity is now at an all time high. In the US 67% men and 57% women are overweight or obese. Why? Because of a sedentary lifestyle, poor food choices, obsession with dieting, lack of time, etc.12

Poverty drains nutrition from family diet. Low energy dense food cost increased 20% in two years (2004-2006). High-energy dense food prices actually dropped 2%.13 It’s relatively inexpensive to get obese.

Looking at yearly maps of the United States from the CDC (Center for Disease Control) with states color coded for the levels of obesity, it becomes very clear that we have an epidemic of obesity in full swing. For example, Mississippi, in 1990 reported that 10%-14% of its population were obese; by 1995 that number had risen to 15%-19%; and by 2005, over 30%.

Dieting is up, but weight loss is down. At any one time, more than two- thirds of US adults are trying to lose weight or are avoiding weight gain.14 Most of them regain the weight within five years.15

Obesity costs have soared to $150 billion. Obesity-related health care costs in 2000 were $117 billion.16 The U.S. diet industry coups $33 billion per year in diet books, diet foods, diet programs and weight-loss gimmicks.17

Obesity: What Is It?

Obesity is based on Body Mass Index (BMI). The formula for BMI is weight (kg)/(height in cm)2 or 703 x pounds/inches2. A BMI of 18.5 or less is considered underweight; 18.5 < BMI < 25 ideal weight; 25 < BMI < 30 overweight; 30 > BMI < 35, obese (mild); 35 < BMI < 40, obese (moderate); and 40 < BMI obese (severe). There are charts available that make determining you BMI easier. Another useful way to access obesity is waist circumference. For men a waist circumference of greater than 40 inches and for woman a waist circumference of greater than 35 inches indicates obesity.18 A large waist circumference is more dangerous than a high BMI for many of the diseases we will discuss.

Is It Really Worth It?

Why lose weight? You may be wondering, “If everyone is gaining, why fight the current?” There are a number of good reasons to choose weight loss :

A clearer mind; a healthier body image; the avoidance of pain and depression; to reduce financial burden (health costs); to be around for your children and grandchildren; and to avoid disability and needing to be cared for by others, just to name a few. Life expectancy for the morbidly obese is reduced by 8 years in women and 20 years for men.19 Shedding a few pounds can diminish the threat. Men participating in successful weight loss programs can reduce their risk of dying by 41%.20 By dropping 20 to 29 pounds, diabetics can reduce their risk of dying by 33%.21 It would be well to make weight loss a way of life. Continuous weight loss, approaching ideal body weight, can reduce the risk of diabetes by 30-50%.22 If your health is failing, weight loss just may be the key to recovery. A five percent weight loss in obese individuals can result in improved blood sugar control, blood pressure, cholesterol and triglycerides.23

The Bad News

Those tenacious extra pounds can be a little recognized source of disease. Eleven percent of cancer, 14% osteoarthritis, 17% heart disease and hypertension, 30% gallbladder disease and 57% of diabetes can be attributed to obesity.24

To put it another way, the hidden cost of abundant fat can be calculated in the increased risk of other diseases. The risk of diabetes increases 244%- 600%;25 gallstones 400%-500%;26 depression 400%;27 sleep apnea risk increases 77%;28 asthma risk is up 190%;29 reflux 94%;30 deep vein thrombosis (blood clots) 140%;31 coronary heart disease 81%;32 gout 200%;33 female infertility 200%;34 male infertility due to low sperm count 300%;35 premenstrual syndrome (PMS) 180%.36 Being very obese can increase the risk of dying by 140%;37 stroke 70%;38 stool and urine incontinence risk increases 45% and 150% respectively;39 and risk of cirrhosis from fatty liver due to obesity is up 120%.40

Increasing body weight is a strong risk factor for diabetes. Eighty percent of patients with Type 2 Diabetes are overweight or obese.41 To further examine the diabetes risk, it is important to realize that for each 5 pounds of weight gained, the risk of diabetes goes up 10%.42 The risk of getting diabetes sometime during a person’s life is 7% for underweight people, 15% for normal weight people, 26% for overweight people, 44% for obese people, and 57% for the very obese.43 The fat most implicated in diabetes and its complications is what is called central, visceral or organ fat.44 This is fat that is inside the body surrounding the abdominal organs. This fat is always kept at the higher body core temperature. This fat is the source of oxidized free radicals of fat and cholesterol.45 Diabetics tend to have more of this type of fat.46 Visceral obesity also leads to elevated triglycerides and reduced HDL levels substantially increasing the risk of coronary heart disease.47

The link between higher body fat and cancer risk is also related to the fat cells’ involvement in hormone production. It is very hard to have breast cancer in the absence of estrogen. Excess estrogen production in obese women gives them a poorer prognosis with breast cancer.48 Obesity increases the risk of other cancers too:
ovarian cancer14%; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 17%; pancreatic cancer 24%; multiple myeloma 31%; breast cancer in postmenopausal women 40%; leukaemia 50%; kidney cancer 53%; colorectal cancer 61%; adenocarcinoma of the esophagus 138%; and endometrial cancer 189%.49

Blood pressure also increases with rising obesity. A 13 lb weight gain increases the risk of hypertension by 36%; 24 lbs by 64%; 35 lbs by 132%; 46 lbs by 191%; and 55 lbs or more by 265%. On the other hand, weight loss can decrease the risk.

A 14 lb weight loss can reduce the risk by 24% and weight loss of 22 lbs or more can reduce the risk by 53%.50

Weight gain increases the risk of back pain and arthritis. Back pain increases significantly with weight gain.51 Pressure from excess weight flattens the inter-vertebral discs causing them to deteriorate and resist rejuvenation.52 An excessive waist with its increased visceral fat may swell the risk of arthritis more than absolute BMI.53 Normal weight people have a risk of arthritis of only 17%; for the very obese the risk climbs to 44%.54

Extra large clothes accompany extra large skin problems.55 If you find yourself buying those extra large clothes sizes you can be sure you also have a lot more skin that you were born with. Skin diseases increase in the obese from altered skin blood flow and physiology.56

Remember Alzheimer’s disease? Diabetes and obesity quadruple the risk of developing Alzheimer’s.57 Aggressive weight loss may ease hypothyroidism. About 10% of obese subjects are hypothyroid. Weight gain has been associated with hypothyroidism while weight loss has normalized it.58

Depression stalks the obese. Depression doubles the risk of obesity. Depressed people eat about 20% more calories than their non-obese counterparts.59 And it works both ways. Obesity quadruples the risk of depression.60

Social isolation increases with obesity. Obesity in women is associated with: lower individual earnings, few friends outside the family circle, and long-term unemployment.61

Illness related work absenteeism is increased in the obese. Obese employees are 80% more likely to experience work absences and are absent 3.7 more days per year than non-obese people.62

The obese population may be living longer with better-controlled risk factors, but are paradoxically experiencing more disability. Obesity increases the risk of serious disability by 175%. Obese individuals have twice the risk of being unable to perform the activities of daily living.63

Conquering Obesity Naturally

You choose! You are a reflection of the choices you’ve committed to. Your life and health habits are yours alone. Be the best you can be. The choice is yours.

Health: healthy weight, not lowest weight. The ultimate goal is health and healthy weight for your entire lifetime. With the right focus you will have increased energy, better self-esteem, more personal control, and a positive attitude. Eat for the long haul; choose a life-long plan.

Are you ready to change? Internal motivation is better than external. What you choose to do for yourself is more lasting and satisfying than what someone else pressures you to do.

Only a fool has to learn everything by his own experience. Be realistic— make small changes over time. Be adventurous—expand your tastes, try new dishes. Be flexible—balance your food and activity over several days. Be sensible—enjoy food in moderation. Be active—walk the dog, ride a bike, push a stroller.

Exercise Can Be Great Fun

Physical activity predicts success. Choose something you enjoy, preferably out doors in the open air and sunshine. Get at least sixty minutes, combined total, most days, and you will enjoy the benefits: healthy weight, healthy heart, strong bones, great sleep, stress relief, increased energy, and a positive and confident outlook!

Why exercise? Weight will reduce with diet alone, but muscle mass and bone density will disappear too. Exercise maintains muscle mass64 and bone density65 while fat is lost. It also increases aerobic capacity for better cardiovascular fitness.66

As already mentioned, sedentary lifestyle accelerates risk of obesity. In fact, an 8-hour sedentary job increases the risk of obesity by 20%, and of diabetes by 28%.67

Get your beauty rest. Children sleeping less than 9 hours are at increased risk of obesity.68

You can tip the balance in the battle of the bulge. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Environmental factors, such as the increased availability of high caloric food or the decreased need for physical activity, contribute to its development.69 A delicate balance exists within the human body. Weight depends upon the balance of energy input from diet, against energy expenditure through exercise. The balance is also affected by basal metabolic rate. When the total energy input exceeds expenditure, weight gain occurs. Many people eat as though they were going to be doing hard physical labor when if fact they are not. This creates an environment for obesity. You will find success then your eating matches your energy and weight loss needs.70

Weight gain is often the result of biological and cultural mismatches to the modern environment where there are strong signals to eat; weak signals to stop eating; increased availability of high calorie dense food; eating is rewarded; there are no viable alternatives at times; and overeating is considered of high status.

On the other hand activity is associated with weak signals to continue and strong signals to stop; reduced availability; inactivity is applauded; inactivity I made a viable alternative and given a high social status.. This plays into the concept of eating to live, versus living to eat. Many people eat as though they were preparing for a long day of heavy physical labor when in reality their lives are pretty sedentary. If we eat to live, we match our energy intake to our expected energy expenditures and this helps keep our weight stable. If we live to eat, our energy intake exceeds our energy needs and obesity ensues. The wise man commented on this principle in this way, “Blessed art thou, O land, when thy king is the son of nobles, and thy princes eat in due season, for strength, and not for drunkenness!”71

Do something you like and enjoy. Exercises shown to be beneficial include: walking, running, aerobics (both in water and in the gym),72 and intermittent exercise especially on accessible home equipment.73

How much do I need to exercise? You may have limitation that will need to be overcome, but we suggest at least sixty minutes daily. The best times are before breakfast,74 and after meals. Exercising after meals results in greater energy expenditure,75 while decreasing blood sugar and insulin levels in diabetics.76 Moderate exercise is as beneficial as
intense, and short bouts are as effective as long (meaning you don’t have to do all sixty minutes at one time).77

Walking is a little appreciated health booster. Each hour of brisk walking per day reduces the risk of obesity by 24% and diabetes by 34%.78

A ten year exercise study was conducted which revealed that an active lifestyle prevents weight gain and a sedentary lifestyle with little recreational activity increases the risk of weight gain by 200% for men and 300% for women.79

Knee Pain Cripples Weight Loss: Not So According to New Studies

“But I can’t exercise, I have a knee with arthritis and it hurts to walk”, you may be saying, like so many others.

In a study of people with knee arthritis, six months of weight loss and exercise actually improved knee pain, disability,80 walking gait and the performance of a six-minute walk distance test, and a timed stair-climbing test.81 Samples of knee fluid actually showed decreased inflammatory markers.82 You “rust” out before you wear out. Most arthritis pain will improve with exercise. Weight loss helps too; a 10% weight reduction improves knee function by 28% in patients with osteoarthritis.83

The Weight Of The Benefits

Exercise yields great dividends in weight loss. Exercise increases: muscle strength and bulk; bone mineral density; insulin sensitivity;84 the immune system;85 self-control around food;86 87 HDL “good” cholesterol88 and maintains weight loss over the long term.89 Exercise decreases: visceral or central fat90 91 and waist-hip ratio;92 the body’s physiological response to stress;93 high blood pressure;94 cholesterol and triglycerides;95 cardiac risk factors;96 oxidative stress;97 and the risk of gallstones.98 Of particular importance is the way aerobic fitness curbs cardiac deaths. Being cardio- vascularly fit can reduce the risk of mortality from obesity by 75%.99

Need slow motion? Eat a western diet. The western diet slows people down physically and makes them sedentary, reducing energy expenditure and increasing weight gain.100

Bring Out The Fork: We’re Going To Talk Diet Now!

Top diets boast whole plant foods.101 People adopting a whole plant food diet can lose almost three times as much weight in a year as those choosing other diet methods. And people choosing a whole plant food diet as a means of weight loss are four times more likely to stick with their chosen diet.102

By the way, a word of caution: when you go on a whole plant food diet, and your health problems start to resolve, you may need to have you medications adjusted. This is especially true for diabetic medications and blood pressure medications.

Avoid Wearisome Diets

It’s not just a diet; it’s a lifestyle change! Be aware of fad diets. Steer clear of these claims: fast, easy weight loss; breakthrough miracle; banish fat; secret formula; new discovery; cure; balances hormones; enzymatic process. Is the author credible? Be cautious about diets that advocate magic or miracle foods; rapid weight loss or quick fixes; no exercise; rigid menus; specific food combinations; recommendations based on a single study or studies published without a peer review; and promises that sound too good to be true.

New research shows that using artificially sweetened foods and drinks to manage weight could backfire. Artificial sweeteners confuse the mind’s ability to judge calorie content, making people who use diet drinks or diet foods crave more calories.103 People who use diet drinks have been shown to eat more calories, especially carbohydrates.104

Some fad diets are especially worrisome. Colorectal cancer risk increased four fold with consumption of high-fat, high-protein, and low-carbohydrate diets.105 By contrast, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets of whole plant foods increase intake of: fiber, bio-available calcium; vitamins; minerals; cancer preventing antioxidants and phytochemicals which lower risk for heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and high blood pressure.

Continued in Achieving Your Ideal Weight Naturally – Part 2


fn40. Ioannou GN, Weiss NS, Boyko EJ, Kowdley KV, Kahn SE, Carithers RL, Tsai EC, Dominitz JA. Is central obesity associated with cirrhosis-related death or hospitalization? A population-based, cohort study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Jan;3(1):67-74.

  1. Erlanson-Albertsson C, Zetterström R. The global obesity epidemic: snacking and obesity may start with free meals during infant feeding. Acta Paediatr. 2005 Nov;94(11):1523-31.


  3. Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med. 1997 Sep 25;337(13):869-73.

  4. Hannon TS, Rao G, Arslanian SA. Childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pediatrics. 2005 Aug;116(2):473-80.

  5. Edmunds L, Waters E, Elliott EJ. Evidence based paediatrics: Evidence based management of childhood obesity. BMJ. 2001 Oct 20;323(7318):916-9.

  6. Lee JM, Appugliese D, Kaciroti N, Corwyn RF, Bradley RH, Lumeng JC. Weight status in young girls and the onset of puberty. Pediatrics. 2007 Oct;120(4):924-5.

  7. German AJ. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J Nutr. 2006 Jul;136(7 Suppl):1940S-1946S.

  8. Hill JO. Understanding and addressing the epidemic of obesity: an energy balance perspective. Endocr Rev. 2006 Dec;27(7):750-61.

  9. Bray GA. The epidemic of obesity and changes in food intake: the Fluoride Hypothesis. Physiol Behav. 2004 Aug;82(1):115-21.

  10. Kushner RF. Roadmaps for Clinical Practice: Case Studies in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion— Assessment and Management of Adult Obesity: A Primer for Physicians. Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 2003.

  11. McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993 Nov 10;270(18):2207-12.

  12. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999– 2000. JAMA. 2002;288:1723–1727.

  13. Monsivais P, Drewnowski A. The rising cost of low-energy-density foods. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Dec;107(12):2071-6.

  14. Serdula MK,Mokdad AH,Williamson D, Galuska DA,Mendlein JM, Heath GW. Prevalence of attempting to lose weight and strategies for controlling weight. JAMA. 1999;282:1353–1358.

  15. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults—The Evidence Report. National Institutes of Health. Obes Res. 1998 Sep;6 Suppl 2:51S-209S.

  16. Stein CJ, Colditz GA. The epidemic of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2522-5.

  17. LAST AR, WILSON SA. Low-Carbohydrate Diets. Am Fam Physician 2006;73:1942-8, 1951.

  18. Kushner RF. Roadmaps for Clinical Practice: Case Studies in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion— Assessment and Management of Adult Obesity: A Primer for Physicians. Chicago, Ill: American Medical Association; 2003.

  19. Fontaine KR, Redden DT, Wang C, Westfall AO, Allison DB. Years of life lost due to obesity. JAMA. 2003 Jan 8;289(2):187-93.

  20. Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Lennon L. Reasons for intentional weight loss, unintentional weight loss, and mortality in older men. Arch Intern Med. 2005 May 9;165(9):1035-40.

  21. Williamson DF, Thompson TJ, Thun M, Flanders D, Pamuk E, Byers T. Intentional weight loss and mortality among overweight individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Oct;23(10):1499-504.

  22. Moore LL, Visioni AJ, Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Finkle WD, Ellison RC. Can sustained weight loss in overweight individuals reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus? Epidemiology. 2000 May;11(3):269-73.

  23. Goldstein DJ. Beneficial health effects of modest weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992 Jun;16(6):397-415.

  24. Wolf AM, Colditz GA. Current estimates of the economic cost of obesity in the United States. Obes Res. 1998 Mar;6(2):97-106.

  25. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA. 2003 Jan 1;289(1):76-9.

  26. Erlinger S. Gallstones in obesity and weight loss. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Dec;12(12):1347-52.

  27. Onyike CU, Crum RM, Lee HB, Lyketsos CG, Eaton WW. Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Dec 15;158(12):1139-47.

  28. Daltro CH, Fontes FH, Santos-Jesus R, Gregorio PB, Araújo LM. Obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS): association with obesity, gender and age. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2006 Feb;50(1):74- 81.

  29. Luder E, Ehrlich RI, Lou WY, Melnik TA, Kattan M. Body mass index and the risk of asthma in adults. Respir Med. 2004 Jan;98(1):29-37.

  30. Hampel H, Abraham NS, El-Serag HB. Meta-analysis: obesity and the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Aug 2;143(3):199-211.

  31. Samama MM. An epidemiologic study of risk factors for deep vein thrombosis in medical outpatients: the Sirius study. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Dec 11-25;160(22):3415-20.

  32. Bogers RP, Bemelmans WJ, Hoogenveen RT, Boshuizen HC, Woodward M, Knekt P, van Dam RM, Hu FB, Visscher TL, Menotti A, Thorpe RJ Jr, Jamrozik K, Calling S, Strand BH, Shipley MJ ; for the BMI-CHD Collaboration Investigators. Association of overweight with increased risk of coronary heart disease partly independent of blood pressure and cholesterol levels: a meta-analysis of 21 cohort studies including more than 300 000 persons. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Sep 10;167(16):1720-8.

  33. Choi HK, Atkinson K, Karlson EW, Curhan G. Obesity, weight change, hypertension, diuretic use, and risk of gout in men: the health professionals follow-up study. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Apr 11;165(7):742-8.

  34. Grodstein F, Goldman MB, Cramer DW. Body mass index and ovulatory infertility. Epidemiology. 1994 Mar;5(2):247-50.

  35. Hammoud AO, Wilde N, Gibson M, Parks A, Carrell DT, Meikle AW. Male obesity and alteration in sperm parameters. Fertil Steril. Epub Jan 4, 2008.

  36. Masho SW, Adera T, South-Paul J. Obesity as a risk factor for premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Mar;26(1):33-9.

  37. Sui X, LaMonte MJ, Laditka JN, Hardin JW, Chase N, Hooker SP, Blair SN. Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity as mortality predictors in older adults. JAMA. 2007 Dec 5;298(21):2507-16.

  38. Hu G, Tuomilehto J, Silventoinen K, Sarti C, Männistö S, Jousilahti P. Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio on the risk of total and type-specific stroke. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jul 9;167(13):1420-7.

  39. Lawrence JM, Lukacz ES, Liu IL, Nager CW, Luber KM. Pelvic floor disorders, diabetes, and obesity in women: findings from the Kaiser Permanente Continence Associated Risk Epidemiology Study. Diabetes Care. 2007 Oct;30(10):2536-41. Epub 2007 Jul 9.

  40. Hensrud DD. Dietary treatment and long-term weight loss and maintenance in type 2 diabetes. Obes Res. 2001 Nov;9 Suppl 4:348S-353S.

  41. Mobley CC. Lifestyle interventions for “diabesity”: the state of the science. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2004 Mar;25(3):207-18, 211-2, 214-8.

  42. Narayan KM, Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Gregg EW, Williamson DF. Effect of BMI on lifetime risk for diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2007 Jun;30(6):1562-6.

  43. Mori Y, Hoshino K, Yokota K, Itoh Y, Tajima N. Differences in the pathology of the metabolic syndrome with or without visceral fat accumulation: a study in pre-diabetic Japanese middle-aged men. Endocrine. 2006 Feb;29(1):149-53.

  44. Björntorp P. -to: Shafrir E, Raz I (2003) For debate. Diabetes: mellitus or lipidus? Diabetologia 46: 433-440. Comment on: Diabetologia. 2003 Mar;46(3):433-40. Diabetologia. 2003 Nov;46(11):1586-7; author reply 1587.

  45. Chen J, Tian ZQ, Zhang WG, Chen JH, Yan ZC, Ni YX, Zhong J, Jin J, Zhao ZG, Mu H, Zhu ZM. Relationship between visceral adipose tissue and prevalence of metabolic syndrome MS in patients with MS, and hypertension and/or diabetes. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2006 Aug 15;86(30):2110-3.

  46. Després JP, Pascot A, Lemieux I. Risk factors associated with obesity: a metabolic perspective. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2000 Dec;61 Suppl 6:31-38.

  47. Donegan WL, Johnstone MF, Biedrzycki L. Obesity, estrogen production, and tumor estrogen receptors in women with carcinoma of the breast. Am J Clin Oncol. 1983 Feb;6(1):19-24.

  48. Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, Green J, Spencer E, Bull D. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ 2007;335;1134-1139.

  49. Yang G, Shu XO, Gao YT, Zhang X, Li H, Zheng W. Impacts of weight change on prehypertension in middle- aged and elderly women. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Dec;31(12):1818-25.

  50. Hays NP, Bathalon GP, Roubenoff R, Lipman R, Roberts SB. The association of eating behavior with risk for morbidity in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002 Feb;57(2):M128-33.

  51. Rodacki AL, Fowler NE, Provensi CL, Rodacki Cde L, Dezan VH. Body mass as a factor in stature change. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2005 Oct;20(8):799-805.

  52. Ghroubi S, Elleuch H, Guermazi M, Kaffel N, Feki H, Abid M, Baklouti S, Elleuch MH. Abdominal obesity and knee ostheoarthritis. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2007 Nov;50(8):661-666.

  53. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA. 2003 Jan 1;289(1):76-9.

  54. García Hidalgo L. Dermatological complications of obesity. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2002;3(7):497-506.

  55. Yosipovitch G, DeVore A, Dawn A. Obesity and the skin: skin physiology and skin manifestations of obesity. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Jun;56(6):901-16.

  56. Pasinetti GM, Zhao Z, Qin W, Ho L, Shrishailam Y, Macgrogan D, Ressmann W, Humala N, Liu X, Romero C, Stetka B, Chen L, Ksiezak-Reding H, Wang J. Caloric intake and Alzheimer’s disease. Experimental approaches and therapeutic implications. Interdiscip Top Gerontol. 2007;35:159-75.

  57. Chikunguwo S, Brethauer S, Nirujogi V, Pitt T, Udomsawaengsup S, Chand B, Schauer P. Influence of obesity and surgical weight loss on thyroid hormone levels. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007 Nov-Dec;3(6):631-5.

  58. Simon GE, Ludman EJ, Linde JA, Operskalski BH, Ichikawa L, Rohde P, Finch EA, Jeffery RW. Association between obesity and depression in middle-aged women. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2008 Jan-Feb;30(1):32-9.

  59. Onyike CU, Crum RM, Lee HB, Lyketsos CG, Eaton WW. Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 2003 Dec 15;158(12):1139-47.

  60. Sarlio-Lähteenkorva S, Lahelma E. The association of body mass index with social and economic disadvantage in women and men. Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Jun;28(3):445-9.

  61. Tsai SP, Ahmed FS, Wendt JK, Bhojani F, Donnelly RP. The impact of obesity on illness absence and productivity in an industrial population of petrochemical workers. Ann Epidemiol. 2008 Jan;18(1):8-14.

  62. Alley DE, Chang VW. The changing relationship of obesity and disability, 1988-2004. JAMA. 2007 Nov 7;298(17):2020-7.

  63. Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Clark KL, Gordon SE, Puhl SM, Koziris LP, McBride JM, Triplett-McBride NT, Putukian M, Newton RU, Häkkinen K, Bush JA, Sebastianelli WJ. Influence of exercise training on physiological and performance changes with weight loss in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Sep;31(9):1320-9.

  64. Hinton PS, Rector RS, Thomas TR. Weight-bearing, aerobic exercise increases markers of bone formation during short-term weight loss in overweight and obese men and women. Metabolism. 2006 Dec;55(12):1616-8.

  65. Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Clark KL, Gordon SE, Incledon T, Puhl SM, Triplett-McBride NT, McBride JM, Putukian M, Sebastianelli WJ. Physiological adaptations to a weight-loss dietary regimen and exercise programs in women. J Appl Physiol. 1997 Jul;83(1):270-9.

  66. Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1785-91.

  67. Nixon GM; Thompson JMD; Han DY; Becroft DM; Clark PM; Robinson E; Waldie KE; Wild CJ; Black PN; Mitchell EA. Short sleep duration in middle childhood: risk factors and consequences. SLEEP 2008;31(1):71-78.

  68. Hofbauer KG. Molecular pathways to obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Sep;26 Suppl 2:S18-27.

  69. Larsen JJ, Dela F, Kjaer M, Galbo H. The effect of moderate exercise on postprandial glucose homeostasis in NIDDM patients. Diabetologia. 1997 Apr;40(4):447-53.

  70. Ecclesiastes 10:17. King James Version of the Holy Bible.

  71. Gappmaier E, Lake W, Nelson AG, Fisher AG. Aerobic exercise in water versus walking on land: effects on indices of fat reduction and weight loss of obese women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2006 Dec;46(4):564-9.

  72. Jakicic JM, Winters C, Lang W, Wing RR. Effects of intermittent exercise and use of home exercise equipment on adherence, weight loss, and fitness in overweight women: a randomized trial. JAMA. 1999 Oct 27;282(16):1554-60.

  73. Ruegemer JJ, Squires RW, Marsh HM, Haymond MW, Cryer PE, Rizza RA, Miles JM. Differences between prebreakfast and late afternoon glycemic responses to exercise in IDDM patients. Diabetes Care. 1990 Feb;13(2):104-10.

  74. Davis JM, Sargent RG, Brayboy TD, Bartoli WP. Thermogenic effects of pre-prandial and post-prandial exercise in obese females. Addict Behav. 1992;17(2):185-90.

  75. Larsen JJ, Dela F, Madsbad S, Galbo H. The effect of intense exercise on postprandial glucose homeostasis in type II diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 1999 Nov;42(11):1282-92.

  76. Schmidt WD, Biwer CJ, Kalscheuer LK. Effects of long versus short bout exercise on fitness and weight loss in overweight females. J Am Coll Nutr. 2001 Oct;20(5):494-501.

  77. Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9;289(14):1785-91.

  78. Williamson DF, Madans J, Anda RF, Kleinman JC, Kahn HS, Byers T. Recreational physical activity and ten- year weight change in a US national cohort. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1993 May;17(5):279-86.

  79. Martin K, Fontaine KR, Nicklas BJ, Dennis KE, Goldberg AP, Hochberg MC. Weight loss and exercise walking reduce pain and improve physical functioning in overweight postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2001 Aug;7(4):219-23.

  80. Messier SP, Loeser RF, Miller GD, Morgan TM, Rejeski WJ, Sevick MA, Ettinger WH Jr, Pahor M, Williamson JD. Exercise and dietary weight loss in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: the Arthritis, Diet, and Activity
    Promotion Trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 May;50(5):1501-10.

  81. Messier SP, Loeser RF, Mitchell MN, Valle G, Morgan TP, Rejeski WJ, Ettinger WH. Exercise and weight loss in obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000 Sep;48(9):1062-72.

  82. Christensen R, Astrup A, Bliddal H. Weight loss: the treatment of choice for knee osteoarthritis? A randomized trial. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2005 Jan;13(1):20-7.

  83. Ryan AS, Nicklas BJ, Berman DM. Aerobic exercise is necessary to improve glucose utilization with moderate weight loss in women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Jun;14(6):1064-72.

  84. Scanga CB, Verde TJ, Paolone AM, Andersen RE, Wadden TA. Effects of weight loss and exercise training on natural killer cell activity in obese women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Dec;30(12):1666-71.

  85. Kiernan M, King AC, Stefanick ML, Killen JD. Men gain additional psychological benefits by adding exercise to a weight-loss program. Obes Res. 2001 Dec;9(12):770-7.

  86. Pendleton VR, Goodrick GK, Poston WS, Reeves RS, Foreyt JP. Exercise augments the effects of cognitive- behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2002 Mar;31(2):172-84.

  87. Sopko G, Leon AS, Jacobs DR Jr, Foster N, Moy J, Kuba K, Anderson JT, Casal D, McNally C, Frantz I. The effects of exercise and weight loss on plasma lipids in young obese men. Metabolism. 1985 Mar;34(3):227-36.

  88. Wadden TA, Vogt RA, Foster GD, Anderson DA. Exercise and the maintenance of weight loss: 1-year follow- up of a controlled clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1998 Apr;66(2):429-33.

  89. Mayo MJ, Grantham JR, Balasekaran G. Exercise-induced weight loss preferentially reduces abdominal fat. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Feb;35(2):207-13.

  90. You T, Murphy KM, Lyles MF, Demons JL, Lenchik L, Nicklas BJ. Addition of aerobic exercise to dietary weight loss preferentially reduces abdominal adipocyte size. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Aug;30(8):1211-6.

  91. Blair SN. Evidence for success of exercise in weight loss and control. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Oct 1;119(7 Pt 2):702-6.

  92. Georgiades A, Sherwood A, Gullette EC, Babyak MA, Hinderliter A, Waugh R, Tweedy D, Craighead L, Bloomer R, Blumenthal JA. Effects of exercise and weight loss on mental stress-induced cardiovascular responses in individuals with high blood pressure. Hypertension. 2000 Aug;36(2):171-6.

  93. Watkins LL, Sherwood A, Feinglos M, Hinderliter A, Babyak M, Gullette E, Waugh R, Blumenthal JA. Effects of exercise and weight loss on cardiac risk factors associated with syndrome X. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Sep 8;163(16):1889-95.

  94. Weintraub MS, Rosen Y, Otto R, Eisenberg S, Breslow JL. Physical exercise conditioning in the absence of weight loss reduces fasting and postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein levels. Circulation. 1989 May;79(5):1007-14.

  95. Dengel DR, Hagberg JM, Pratley RE, Rogus EM, Goldberg AP. Improvements in blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipoprotein lipids after aerobic exercise plus weight loss in obese, hypertensive middle-aged men. Metabolism. 1998 Sep;47(9):1075-82.

  96. Rector RS, Warner SO, Liu Y, Hinton PS, Sun GY, Cox RH, Stump CS, Laughlin MH, Dellsperger KC, Thomas TR. Exercise and diet induced weight loss improves measures of oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity in adults with characteristics of the metabolic syndrome. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Aug;293(2):E500-6.

  97. Wilund KR, Feeney LA, Tomayko EJ, Chung HR, Kim K. Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Gallstone Development in Mice. J Appl Physiol. Epub Jan 10, 2008.

  98. Sui X, LaMonte MJ, Laditka JN, Hardin JW, Chase N, Hooker SP, Blair SN. Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity as mortality predictors in older adults. JAMA. 2007 Dec 5;298(21):2507-16.

  99. Bjursell M, Gerdin AK, Lelliott CJ, Egecioglu E, Elmgren A, Törnell J, Oscarsson J, Bohlooly-Y M. Acutely reduced locomotor activity is a major contributor to Western diet-induced obesity in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Feb;294(2):E251-60.

  100. Newby PK, Tucker KL, Wolk A. Risk of overweight and obesity among semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1267-74.

  101. Smith CF, Burke LE, Wing RR. Vegetarian and weight-loss diets among young adults. Obes Res. 2000 Mar;8(2):123-9.

  102. Swithers SE, Davidson TL. A Role for Sweet Taste: Calorie Predictive Relations in Energy Regulation by Rats. Behav Neurosci. 2008 Feb;122(1):161-73.

  103. Lavin JH, French SJ, Read NW. The effect of sucrose- and aspartame-sweetened drinks on energy intake, hunger and food choice of female, moderately restrained eaters. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Jan;21(1):37-42.

  104. Yeung KS, McKeown-Eyssen GE, Li GF, Glazer E, Hay K, Child P, Gurgin V, Zhu SL, Baptista J, Aloe M, Mee D, Jazmaji V, Austin DF, Li CC, Bruce WR. Comparisons of diet and biochemical characteristics of stool and urine between Chinese populations with low and high colorectal cancer rates. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991 Jan 2;83(1):46-50.

Comments ( 1 ) Leave a Comment
  1. 1 Muller Jul 16, 2019, 12:46 AM PDT

    For more tips on dog weight loss, like exercises for your dog, see our article How Can I Help My Dog Lose Weight? click to read more

Sign In


Sign In

You must sign in to view the ingredients.


Not a Member?

Here’s some of the benefits:

  • Live streaming videos
  • Local seminars & events
  • Expert health advice
  • Wellness tips & tools
  • FREE membership



Sign In

You must sign in to watch “Achieving Your Ideal Weight Naturally - Part 1”


Not a Member?

Here’s some of the benefits:

  • Live streaming videos
  • Local seminars & events
  • Expert health advice
  • Wellness tips & tools
  • FREE membership



Sign In

You must sign in to leave a comment.


Not a Member?

Here’s some of the benefits:

  • Live streaming videos
  • Local seminars & events
  • Expert health advice
  • Wellness tips & tools
  • FREE membership